Trump has regularly said current trade practices are unfair and hurting American companies and jobs, and has threatened to impose import tariffs to the tune of $150 billion on Chinese goods.
But the export outlook is being clouded by the trade row with the United States, which could disrupt China's shipments and its supply chains.
Exports surged 12.9 percent on-year, while imports rose 21.5 percent - both figures beating expectations.
The headline news comes as Washington and Beijing are preparing for another high-level meeting on trade relations, scheduled for next week.
USA officials traveled to Beijing last week for talks on resolving the dispute between the world's two biggest economies.
"China's top economic advisor, the Vice Premier, will be coming here next week to continue the discussions with the President's economic team", White House Press Secretary Sarah Sanders announced during a routine press conference on Monday.
In April, China's trade surplus with the US swelled to $22.2 billion, up from $15.4 billion in March.
However, the Trump administration has drawn a hard line, demanding a US$200 billion cut in the Chinese trade surplus with the US by 2020, sharply lower tariffs and advanced technology subsidies, according to people familiar with the top-level US-China talks on Friday last week. "The President has a great relationship with (Chinese) President Xi (Jinping), and we are working on something that we think will be great for everybody", Sanders said.
Analysts had expected China to post a trade surplus of $24.7 billion for April after a rare deficit of $4.98 billion the previous month.
China responded with threats of US exports to China in an equal amount and targeting industries that may cause the most impact.
Chinese private enterprises played a bigger role in trade by contributing 38.6 percent to total trade, up 1.2 percentage points compared with the same period a year ago.
China said last week that some progress was made in the talks in Beijing, but acknowledged that the two sides remain far apart on some issues.
China's foreign ministry called the White House statement a "positive signal".
Trump has threatened to impose tariffs on as much as Dollars 150 billion in Chinese goods, duties that can be imposed after a public comment period ends on May 22.