There have already been restrictions in place relating to their use since 2013, today's ruling goes further in banning all outdoor use of three types of neonicotinoids.
The vote by the European Union comes after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) delayed regulatory action on most uses of neonicotinoids until 2018, despite receiving more than six million public comments urging the pesticide be banned in the U.S.
This followed advice from the United Kingdom government's advisory body on pesticides which said scientific evidence now suggests the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoids - particularly to bees and pollinators - are greater than previously understood.
Antonia Staats, senior campaigner at Avaaz, which led a petition backed by five million signatures to ban the chemicals, said: "Banning these toxic pesticides is a beacon of hope for bees".
Chris Hartfield from the UK National Farmers' Union (NFU) said of the ban: "The Commission hasn't been able to find that these restrictions have delivered any measurable benefits for bees".
"The restrictions are meant to address the alleged risks the substances pose to bee health".
Environmental organisation Friends of the Earth (FOE) has called the ban a "major victory for science, common sense and our under-threat bees".
Bees and other insects are vital for global food production as they pollinate three-quarters of all crops.
He warned that without the pesticides many crops grown would become less viable and could lead to increased imports of food.
Study after study has shown that pesticides (neonicotinoids in particular) hurt bee populations, as well as other insects, worms, and even birds. "So we will be looking to both the UK Government and the Commission to work with the industry to mitigate the effect of a ban on both food production and the environment".
Neonicotinoids also pose other environmental risks, drifting outside of applied areas and contaminating both soil and water.
In the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is now assessing risks posed by these and other neonicotinoids, with a proposed interim decision to be issued later this year, EPA representatives noted on the department's website. Removing yet another tool from farmers which helps them control pests and disease will negatively impact their ability to farm efficiently and profitably, as we develop a post-Brexit strategy for agriculture.