The Paralympics ban comes after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) barred Russia from the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang this February over systematic doping, allowing only some Russian athletes to compete under under a neutral flag and forbidding Russia's national colors and anthem at the games. The evidence Russian Federation showed to refute the conclusions of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Independent Commission headed by Richard McLaren is not enough, International Paralympic Committee (IPC) President Andrew Parsons told TASS.
But Russian Para-athletes who can prove they are clean will be allowed to compete in Pyeongchang as neutrals.
"What was uncovered was not a minor breach of an obligation", Andrew Parsons, president of the International Paralympic Committee, said at a news conference in Bonn, Germany on Monday.
"The IPC has shown great leadership and determination to protect clean Paralympic athletes around the world and the integrity of the Paralympic Games".
At next month's Winter Olympics, Russia have been banned by the IOC from competing as a nation - however, Russian athletes who go through an independent drug testing regime are allowed to compete as "Olympic Athletes from Russia".
The team of "Neutral Paralympic Athletes (NPA)" will have half the number of Russian athletes that competed in Sochi in 2014.
The IPC said there is now a "different picture" in Russian Federation, compared to 2016 when the country's anti-doping system was found to be "totally compromised, corrupted and open to abuse".
Critically, however, he also praised "solid progress" within Russian Federation with respect to antidoping education and drug testing - progress that had inspired confidence in the organization's ability to distinguish between clean athletes and tainted ones, he said.
The neutral Paralympic athletes will be allowed to compete in Alpine skiing, biathlon, cross-country skiing, snowboard and curling. "We have also witnessed behavioral and cultural changes". Under the sport rules for Para ice hockey, a Neutral Paralympic Athlete (NPA) team could not be considered as Russian Federation had missed the opportunity to qualify. The IPC also requires the Russian anti-doping agency to be fully reinstated by WADA, which is also demanding Russia accepts the investigations' findings.
"So the organising committee has measures in place if any other, including the Russian flag, arises in the stand".