Actor George Clooney, Nobel peace laureate Malala Yousafzai, actress Tina Fey, shock jock Howard Stern and rap superstar Jay-Z complete the lineup.
According to a promotional video released on Friday, an interview with Obama will be featured on the debut episode of Letterman's new "My Next Guest Needs No Introduction" Netflix exclusive talk show, set to drop on January 12.
The new show is Letterman's return to the limelight after leaving "The Late Show With David Letterman" in May 2015, marking the end of a legendary stint as a late-night talk-show host that started at NBC in 1982.
David Letterman is out of retirement and returning to television with a six-episode, 60-minute Netflix series - My Next Guest Needs No Introduction with David Letterman.
This would be Obama's first televised interview since his departure from the White House a year ago. It will be his first talk show appearance since leaving the White House in January of past year.
"I had a show for a long time", Letterman said in his new show's trailer. In each hour-long episode, Letterman will conduct a long-form conversation with a single guest and explore topics of his own outside the studio.
David Letterman had said in August that he would be back in 2018 on Netflix. "These are people that I admire".
"You never know when you might learn something, and that's what this is about for me, " Letterman said in a teaser for the show.
Sarandos said he hopes Letterman's show will attract more subscribers.
In an interview with Prince Harry on BBC Radio 4's Today Programme that aired on December 27, former president Barack Obama talked about the dangers of social media and his last day as president.